- Cancer can affect many different parts of the body and the study of cancer is called oncology.
- There are many different approaches to cancer treatment depending on the type & severity of the cancer.
- There are many drugs available to either attack the cancer or to treat the symptoms of the cancer or cancer treatment.
The study of cancer is called oncology. The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer also forms an integral part of oncology. There are many types of cancer, almost 120. There are some hereditary syndromes too which are characterized by the presence of tumors.
- Oral cancer
- Oropharyngeal cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Thyroid cancer
- Uterine cancer
- Blood cancer
Common Cancers (Based On Organs Affected) –
- Bladder cancer
- Breast cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Kidney cancer
- Non-small cell lung cancer
- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
How Are Cancers Diagnosed?
There are 3 general types of cancers based on the type of tumors –
- Blood cancers – Blood tests are done to determine hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count, peripheral smear, red cell indices. Your bone marrow is studied by using the following tests – aspiration, flow cytometry, cytogenetics, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and molecular studies.
- Lymphomas – Blood tests like – lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum uric acid, and kidney function tests. Imaging tests like – computerized tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET CT). Biopsy of bone marrow to find out the type and malignancy of lymphomas.
- Solid tumors – Imaging tests like – X-ray, ultrasonography, computerized tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET CT). Biopsy of affected organs to find out the type and malignancy of tumors.
Common Cancer Treatments
Common treatments for cancers and tumors include –
- Hormonal therapy
- Targeted therapy
- Trans-arterial chemotherapy (TACE)
- Radio-frequency ablation (RFA)
- Prophylactic cranial and stem cell transplantation